Technical Committeessort by date

August 2016

Smart Energy moves ahead

Systems Committee on Smart Energy Technical Committee Forum

Smart Energy can be described as connecting many points of generation with many points of consumption, from end-to-end,  not limited to just the electric grid. Smart Energy is also...

August 2016

The technology that makes our world tick

International Standards contribute to the prevention of cyberattacks

As more areas of our lives become connected to the Internet of Things (IoT), the work of experts in ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee (JTC) 1: Information Technology, who develop...

June 2016

Standards help improve digital audio and video

New ways of working drive technologies for compressing and transmitting images

Information and communication technologies pervade our daily lives and all economic sectors. The way we access and use information has changed. We view, send and receive documents and...

June 2016

Standards support Smart Grid architecture

IEC International Standards will play critical role in Smart Grid power supply and distribution infrastructures

Information is gathered and decision making occurs at substation level in Smart Grids. The electricity-dispatching control centre deals with the strategic management of grid...

June 2016

Limiting access to approved persons only

Heightened security measures at regional and international sports events

In addition to their natural sports appeal this year’s European Football Championship, Euro 2016, and Olympics Games have been marked by an unprecedented deployment of human and...

May 2016

Multimedia systems and equipment produce different realities

Virtual reality and augmented reality rely on audiovisual systems and equipment

Virtual reality (VR), which replicates an environment, and augmented reality (AR), which adds elements and information to a real environment, are made possible through the incorporation...

April 2016

TC work underpins mobile and stationary energy storage

Batteries are driving growth in mobile devices, e-mobility and stationary energy storage

In recent years consumers have benefited from the introduction of countless mobile and wearable IT and consumer electronics (CE) devices and systems. Meanwhile, public and individual...

March 2016

Protecting systems small and big from electromagnetic disturbance

IEC TC work on EMC protects covers multiple domains

Electromagnetic interference can adversely affect many electronic and electrical systems and equipment. Ensuring the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of these systems and equipment...

January 2016

Cables still in the loop for data transfer

RF systems are thriving in support of ICT and media sectors

Radio frequency (RF) equipment is still widely used for the distribution and transmission of data, voice and multimedia content in the telecom, broadcast, information and communications...

December 2015

More light for less energy

IEC TC standardization work helps cap energy use for lighting in the long term

The lighting sector is undergoing a profound transformation as most countries, seeking to limit increases in their energy consumption, adopt energy-efficient solutions. IEC Technical...

November 2015

Protecting homes and buildings from intruders

Multiple sectors to drive steady growth for the alarm and electronic security systems sector

The market for alarm and electronic security systems will continue to expand in coming years, fed by the quest for increased safety and security, constant concern over terrorism and...

November 2015

Pioneer in innovation

ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1 on information technology

ISO/IEC JTC 1 is the Joint Technical Committee of the IEC and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) for International Information Technology Standards. Created in...

October 2015

Securing our digital lives

Organizing chaos and safeguarding data

As information technology becomes ever more pervasive in our daily lives, one large group of experts is at the forefront in helping to secure our digital environment. Their work covers...

September 2015

Always safer medical electrical equipment

IEC standardization work ensures medical electrical equipment and systems are safe to use and operate

Medical care rests on trust. Trust between patients and medical staff and trust of the latter the equipment they use for examining and treating patients. IEC International Standards are...

September 2015

No power without communication

Communication between equipment and systems is increasingly important for electric power grids

A transition from one-way power distribution structures to two-way grids, where information is exchanged in both directions between producers and consumers, is taking place. This change...

June 2015

Powerful and quick as the wind

Wind power is set to gather more pace with the growing reliance on renewable energies

As countries throughout the world try to increase the share of renewable energies (REs) in their electricity generation portfolio, wind power has surfaced as the most cost-effective and...

May 2015

Sensing light at fibre end

A number of components bring light to the end of the fibre, allowing multiple applications

Fibre optic systems can be found in a number of applications including communications and sensors. IEC Subcommittee (SC) 86C prepares International Standards for fibre optic systems and...

May 2015

The heat is always on for special TC

Clean and energy efficient electroheating is found in many industrial processes

Electroheating, the high-power heating of material using electrical energy, is widely used in the food-processing industry. However, it is better known in other sectors for dealing with...

April 2015

TC work supports EV market expansion

As the number and variety of EVs continues to grow, IEC TC 69 work will remain central to the marketplace

Electric vehicles (EVs) are on the move. Their impact on the automotive and industrial vehicle sectors will continue to grow in coming decades, not just in terms of volume, but also of...

March 2015

Connecting down the line

From line traps to power systems management

Energy infrastructures are evolving towards connected systems, such as Smart Grids. Over the past five decades, major advances in technology have changed the way power is generated,...

March 2015

Staving off the dangers of DIY

Hammering home safety first

In an age of innovation and constant technological evolution, the availability of a wide variety of affordable and easy-to-use power tools enables many people to maintain their homes...

January 2015

IEC Systems Committee Smart Energy

Systems Committee on Smart Energy to extend the scope of strategic or other horizontal groups to bridge areas covered by more than one or two TCs/SCs

As power utilities have to cope with the complex mixture of ever growing demand, the integration of intermittent sources from renewables and ageing infrastructures, the need for...

January 2015

Larger, smaller, sharper and… pervasive

Displays of all sizes are to be found everywhere

In recent years fast growing sales of CE (consumer electronics) and ICT (information and communications technology) systems, which doubled between 2007 and 2014, have driven a huge...

December 2014

Dedicated to improving quality of life

Standards will help the elderly lead a healthier, more active and independent life

Enhancing the health, quality of life and independence of older people has become a priority for many states as a fast ageing population presents them with a number of social and...

November 2014

IEC Standards drive hi-tech advances

A handful of disruptive technologies supported by IEC standardization have emerged in recent years

A number of new key technologies have entered the manufacturing world after years at the R&D stage. Among these, fibre optics, printed electronics and nanotechnologies are having a...

November 2014

Sea, sun and earth

Standardization and certification for renewable sources

As energy demand keeps rising countries seek to cut their reliance on fossil fuels for economic and environmental reasons. REs (renewable energies) are set to play a role in this shift....

November 2014

Energy storage helps power world ahead

Balancing power generation and demand requires the right storage solutions

To balance increasing levels of intermittent RE generation from wind and solar systems, EES (Electrical Energy Storage) solutions are needed that use and store energy efficiently and...

November 2014

Standards matters in road/rail transport

Safer road and rail transport with IEC Standards

Road and rail transports are enjoying a major expansion throughout the world, they are central to the global economy. They depend on electrical and electronic systems which rely on...

November 2014

Sharper, better pictures and sounds

IEC Standardization work is instrumental in driving multimedia growth

Multimedia users are constantly expecting better audio and video quality on their equipment whether they access content on large or smaller, mainly mobile devices. A number of IEC TCs...

November 2014

How standards impact our world

Ensuring safety and simplifying life

Modern life is more and more IT centric, whether buying a plane ticket, making reservations, paying bills, reading the news, watching a movie or downloading a song. Many daily...

November 2014

Getting the right picture

Advances in medical imaging make for better diagnosis and treatment

A central aspect of modern medical treatment is the ability to see inside the body and identify lesions or illnesses in a non-invasive manner. International Standards for many of the...

October 2014

How standards help achieve sustainability

Energy-efficient, safe products

We live in a fast moving world, in which technology is constantly evolving. There are increasing numbers of devices and systems in the marketplace which are used in various daily...

October 2014

From research to standardization

IEC TC 33 Chairman on career highlights and power capacitor standardization

Dr Hebbale Narasimhaiah Nagamani took over the chairmanship of TC (Technical Committee) 33: Power capacitors and their applications for a six-year period on 1 May 2014. Nagamani has a...

August 2014

Print map for the electronic industry

IEC TC helps ground-breaking technology progress

Printed electronics is a relatively new technology that uses an additive process to create a variety of electronic components and systems. It is rapidly advancing from research and...

June 2014

Big data, big future

New ISO/IEC JTC1 study group

Business, academic, and government leaders broadly agree about the potential of big data to fuel innovation, advance commerce and drive progress. We know that big data could change how...

June 2014

Batteries central to future grid storage

Batteries are set to play an increasing significant role in future grid energy storage

Electricity is consumed as it is generated, supply must be reliable and demand must always be met. This requires spare capacity that can be ramped up rapidly and, ideally, storage....

May 2014

Standards for marine energy move on

Extensive standardization work needed to develop marine energy sector

Marine energy is emerging as a huge source of renewable energy but depends on disparate kinds of energies, all of which require different technologies for their full exploitation. IEC...

April 2014

Standards the heart of safe medical equipment

IEC work critical to safe medical care

IEC International Standards play a central role in guaranteeing the safe operation of electrical medical equipment for the wellbeing of patients and users. International Standards in...

April 2014

Eavesdropping on health matters

IEC standardization work on ultrasonics furthers medical advances

Most pieces of electrical medical equipment and systems are used in only a limited number of procedures. This is not the case in the ultrasonic domain, which has a very wide range of...

March 2014

On the right track

IEC standardization for rail transport contributes to the sector's development

Rail transport is a well-established and pivotal mode of transportation both for passengers and freight and is a key component of the global economy. It has enabled many remote areas to...

January 2014

Gearing up for standardization

IEC TC 119 Working Groups dealing with standardization on printed electronics

Printed electronics is set to revolutionize the electronics industry and many other domains. It will prove a disruptive, yet creative process that will allow the production of new...

January 2014

Small or huge – displays are everywhere

Supporting our thirst for multimedia content electronic displays are part of our lives

The top categories of products presented at this year's Las Vegas Consumer Electronics Show and due to come onto the market in 2014 include electronic displays that offer different...

October 2013

TC work to help thwart potential threats

Preventing electromagnetic interference from nuclear and other weapons

As concerns about potential risks to power and telecommunication grids from nuclear devices and electromagnetic weapons grow, IEC subcommittee work takes centre stage

October 2013

Tackling noise effectively

IEC TC 29 develops Standards to measure noise and lower its negative impact

Noise is second only to pollution in terms of negative environmental impact, a fact often overlooked as it is not as easy to see. Noise is estimated to cost countries huge sums every...

October 2013

Helping turn solar power into electricity

IEC Technical Committee works on solar photovoltaic energy systems

Together with wind and marine resources, energy generation from PV (photovoltaic) systems is a relatively recent source of renewable energy. It has been expanding dramatically in recent...

August 2013

Brighter, cleaner and cheaper lights

More efficient and robust technologies will benefit users and the environment

In 2007, the International Energy Agency estimated that lighting accounted for just under 20% of electricity use worldwide. Public policies, reflecting environmental and energy saving...

June 2013

Printout for the future

New IEC TC for new technology

Printed electronics is a relatively new technology that uses an additive process to create a variety of electronic components and systems. It is rapidly advancing from research and...

June 2013

Keep safety sky high

IEC TC works to ensure electronic systems for aircraft operate reliably

The safety of aircraft, even light aircraft, has become increasingly reliant on electronic systems – avionics – designed and manufactured for ADHP (aerospace, defence and high...

May 2013

Trust your doctor and his equipment

IEC International Standards ensure medical electrical equipment and systems are safe to use and operate

Medical care is a matter of trust, patients trust doctors and medical staff who, in turn trust the equipment they use for examining and treating patients. IEC International Standards...

May 2013

Tackling noise effectively

IEC TC 29 develops Standards to measure noise and lower its negative impact

Noise is second only to pollution in terms of negative environmental impact, a fact often overlooked as it is not as easy to see. Noise is estimated to cost countries huge sums every...

May 2013

Legal sharing of digital media content made easier

IEC and ITU cooperate to develop cross-platform IPTV standard

As consumers become increasingly mobile, digital media solutions need to deliver flexibility across technology platforms and devices, while protecting content producers rights....

April 2013

Profile: Karen Higginbottom

Chair of ISO/IEC JTC 1: Information Technology

Karen Higginbottom has been Chair of ISO/IEC JTC (Joint Technical Committee) 1: Information technology since November, 2008 and she has participated in the Committee since 1992. In...

April 2013

Avoiding accidents

Adding electrical equipment to industrial machines for safer operation

Equipment such as machine tools and robots has been used extensively in a variety of manufacturing sectors for decades. Individuals working with or in close proximity to these machines...

March 2013

Safer work on live installations

Established and new work practices and equipment ensure safe live working

Electrical equipment cannot always be powered down for maintenance or repair and work must therefore frequently be carried out on live installations, often at high voltages. IEC TC 78:...

March 2013

TC work to help thwart potential threats

Preventing electromagnetic interference from nuclear and other weapons

As concerns about potential risks to power and telecommunication grids from nuclear devices and electromagnetic weapons grow, IEC subcommittee work takes centre stage

March 2013

Safer entertainment and work

IEC TC work ensures audiovisual, IT and communication equipment is safe to use for all

Audiovisual and information and communication technology equipment can be found in virtually all homes and working environments. The widespread existence of such electrically powered...

January 2013

System: more than the sum of its parts

Why system standards and conformity assessment need a different approach

A system by definition combines a number of different elements. Each of these elements by itself has a limited and defined function. However, when they are brought together in a system...

January 2013

Balancing power needs using fuel cells

Emerging sector will play major role in meeting tomorrow's energy challenges

FCs (fuel cells) convert the chemical energy of fuels such as hydrogen, methane or methanol into electricity through a chemical reaction. They are found in various power units and are...

November 2012

TC work central to hydropower success

The clean power of water

Hydropower continues to be the main source of clean energy in the world. Worldwide, it accounted for 16% of overall electricity generation and for 81,6% of electricity generation from...

November 2012

Wherever it blows, TC work is essential

Wind at the forefront of renewables field

Governments throughout the world are trying to increase the share of renewables in their electricity generation portfolio both as a precaution against fluctuating prices for fossil...

November 2012

TC 120 for smart grid integration

EES (Electrical Energy Storage) Systems to be focus

Recognizing that the proportion of RE (Renewable Energy) is likely to increase in all major electricity markets, but that large-scale incorporation of RE into existing electricity grids...

August 2012

Rechargeable power anywhere

Balancing power supplies and growing digital needs

Secondary batteries, which can be recharged, unlike their primary counterparts, offer the greatest flexibility for many applications, whether mobile or stationary. They make up the...

August 2012

Disposable yet irreplaceable

Some fire left in primary batteries

Access to power whenever and wherever it is needed is essential. When connection to the grid is not available or in other cases it can only be ensured by batteries. The global share of...

August 2012

Developing standards for safer navigation

IEC TC supports increased use of electronics for navigation and communication at sea

Safety at sea, always a major concern for seafarers, has made huge advances in the last hundred years, particularly where navigation and communication systems are concerned....

August 2012

No power, no safe shipping

TC work covers all electrical installations in a demanding environment

Merchant ships are the lifeblood of the global economy, transporting around 90% of international trade (in terms of volume), as well as some two billion passengers a year. Continuous...

August 2012

Heat without fire for manufacturing

Heady times for TC 27 experts

Electroheating, the high-power heating of various materials using electrical energy, is used to make countless products we use, consume or even eat. Steel or aluminium ingots, ceramics...

August 2012

Small but powerful

Micro electromechanical systems are the current big thing

MEMS (Micro electromechanical systems), were invented in the 1980s and have been used for years by the car, computer and medical industries as well as for industrial applications. Now,...

July 2012

The heat is on!

No rest in sight for TC 27 experts

Countless products we use, consume or even eat can result from employing electroheating techniques. Electroheating is the high-power heating of various materials using electrical...

July 2012

Safeguarding the Olympic spirit

Joint ISO/IEC Committee work central to Olympic Games organization

Ensuring the security of major global sporting events such as the Olympic Games or the World Cup represents a major challenge for organizers. The contests attract huge crowds and...

June 2012

TC work helps keep households safe

Safety begins at home

The large and rapidly increasing number of electrical appliances used in the home and elsewhere means that new and updated standards are constantly required to deal with safety issues...

June 2012

Environmental aspects changing markets

Regulations and markets require environmental standardization

More attention than ever before is being given to the overall environmental impact of industrial goods throughout their whole life cycle: from raw material acquisition to the...

May 2012

Rechargeable power anywhere

Energy on tap

Instant access to electricity anywhere, at any time, is becoming more and more important. In many conditions and locations, only batteries can provide this access. Secondary batteries,...

May 2012

Primary batteries shall not go flat

Category proves irreplaceable

Stored electrical energy is essential for providing access to power whenever and wherever it’s needed, as well as for helping balance supply and demand or when power from the grid is...

April 2012

No power: no ships, no offshore drilling!

Electrical installations in the maritime environment – a dynamic domain

Steam propulsion, which ushered in the era of modern ships, was introduced in the first decade of the 19th century. The next major technical milestone – electric power – was...

April 2012

Standardization for safe global shipping

Increasing use of electronics at sea

Carrying an estimated 90% of world trade and billions of passengers every year, international shipping represents the life blood of the global economy. Safety, always a major concern...

April 2012

Wheeling along quietly, without interference

CISPR's work on behalf of the electric vehicle

One of the IEC TCs (Technical Committees) that deals with EMC (electromagnetic compatibility) is CISPR, the international special committee on radio interference. CISPR works to...

March 2012


Measuring and setting EMC limits

CISPR, the international special committee on radio interference, is one of two IEC TCs (Technical Committees) that deals with EMC (electromagnetic compatibility), the other...

March 2012

Creating the big picture

IEC TC 65 and ISO TC 184 join forces to plot automation

There's strong motivation among some of the world's leading industrial automation experts to streamline their future international standardization work and make it clearer and more...

March 2012

Shocking electronics

Standards define test impulses, mostly

Electronic products must pass some level of immunity test when subjected to conducted or radiated energy. Some of those tests include subjecting the equipment under test to electrical...

January 2012

The future is bright, the future is flat

Flat panel displays dominate the multimedia and ICT markets

Displays are central to all multimedia, ICT (information and communication technology) and to a large number of other devices and systems, such as digital still cameras, mobile phones,...

January 2012

TC work sustains media expansion

Harmonization through collaboration with other relevant bodies

The audio-visual and multimedia sectors contain some of the world's most dynamic and productive industries. They are not limited to manufacturing systems and products for professionals...

January 2012

Plug and play

Enabling the smart home and office

Seamlessly switching off lights, turning on heating or cooling remotely, communicate or listen to music that follows you as you move from room to room, this not only requires smart...

December 2011

Ground lighting for the skies

Take off and land in safety

Air traffic safety is a complex and multi-dimensional issue. As one of its main elements, AGL (airfield ground lighting) is essential for the movement of aircraft both in the air and on...

December 2011

LED into the future

Leading lights in the field

Public policies, reflecting environmental and energy saving concerns, are driving the global take-up of energy-efficient bulbs. LED (light-emitting diode), or solid-state lighting...

December 2011

ISO/IEC JTC 1 Plenary in November

ISO/IEC JTC 1 2011 Plenary Meeting in California

The ISO (International Organization for Standardization)/IEC JTC (Joint Technical Committee) 1: Information Technology Standards, is the standards development environment where experts...

November 2011

Master mariners need standards too

Ensuring the safety of ships and offshore units

The safety of ships, of mobile and fixed offshore units and of their crews, is of prime concern and is largely dependent on the reliable operation of electrical installations, of cables...

November 2011

Keeping copper in the loop

RF systems are ‘live wires’

RF (radio frequency) equipment is widely used for the distribution and transmission of data, voice and multimedia content in the telecom, broadcast, ICT (Information and Communications...

November 2011

A guiding light in fibre optics

Maintaining the signal

Ever since the invention of the first low-loss optical fibre in 1970 and the initial installation of optical fibre networks in the early 1980s, the market for fibre optic-based...

October 2011

IEC supports renewable energies

Wind, water and sun come into play

Global energy needs are increasing constantly and with the diminishing supply of fossil fuels and rising environmental and safety concerns, renewables are likely to occupy a growing...

October 2011

Carry-on reading

International Standards for multimedia e-publishing

e-books are bringing new opportunities to the publishing industry. Offering more than a mere interface for reading text, e-bookscan provide much better picture quality than is available...

October 2011

Standby for better performance

Much is being written and said about the smart homes of the future, with their networked appliances and automated systems, but a networked home also means a home with a large number of appliances on standby.

Even in our current 'un-networked' homes, standby power accounts for 5 % to 15 % of a household's power consumption in developing countries and is responsible for 240 million tonnes of...

October 2011


A trip to the hygienist might be less daunting than a visit to the dentist, but even so...

...most of us probably spend our time in the hygienist’s chair willing the process to be over.We are less likely to occupy ourselves examining the equipment used to clean and descale...

October 2011

Tiger in the tank

Getting from A to Z – sustainably

The stakes in EVs are high and growing. The motor industry considers EVs to be key to providing sustainable transportation for people and merchandise while reducing emissions and...

October 2011

Risk management

Ensuring the safety of patients and medical carers

Much needs to be safeguarded in healthcare. One aspect concerns the safety of the patients themselves. Equally important is the safety of those who operate the systems used to diagnose...

October 2011


Fuel cell technologies are developing rapidly and their use is spreading

From buses and aeroplanes to robots and medical equipment such as wheelchairs, new commercial applications are constantly being developed. Although fuel cell power systems are still...

October 2011

What's cooking?

Kitchen aids measure up

The ability to measure the performance of electric cooking ranges, hobs, ovens and grills designed for household use is essential for producers, as low power consumption represents a...

October 2011

All-weather shelters

Protecting electric installations from the weather and other hazards

Safeguarding outdoor electrical installations from the weather and other potential environmental or accidental hazards is essential for their proper operation as well as for safety....

October 2011


Safe and efficient electric tools

For gardening and DIY (do-it-yourself), many of us use electric tools in and around the home. We expect not only that they will do the job at hand but also that they will work safely...

October 2011

Moving billions every day

Shifting the load: Energy-efficient elevators and escalators

Elevators, escalators and moving walkways carry billions of people each day. This form of transport is used by a number equivalent to the population of the entire world at least every...

October 2011

Sensors everywhere

Impulses that help us control our environment

A sensor is a device that responds to a physical stimulus such as heat, light, sound, pressure, magnetism or motion and transmits an impulse that is used to generate an action, such as...

October 2011

Robots at your service!

An army on the move to decontaminate, heal and clean!

Service robots are proving increasingly valuable. They help deal with the consequences of industrial or natural disasters and other dangerous situations. They have opened up many...

October 2011

Getting in and out

Access versus accessibility

Access to a great number of places is, today, largely controlled by machines. Gone are the days when the smiling man was there at the entry point to provide access or to lift the...

October 2011

A study under natural sunlight

Providing comprehensive rating information for photovoltaic modules

A study by Arizona State University Photovoltaic Reliability Laboratory (PRL) based on IEC 61853-1 provides insights into the difficulty of assessing photovoltaic performance testing....

August 2011

George Devol: Father of industrial robots

George Devol (1912-2011): Father of industrial robotics and tireless inventor

George Devol, the man who has been called the father, grandfather and even great grandfather of industrial robotics and who died on 11 August 2011 at the age of 99, filed his last...

July 2011

Chinese industry and automation

IEC Experts share knowledge at 10th annual forum

Following the IEC TC 65: Industrial-process measurement control and automation plenary meeting in Seoul, South Korea, several of the TC officers were invited by ITEI (the...

June 2011

Helping harness solar power

IEC Technical Committee works on solar photovoltaic energy systems

As solar power is set to occupy a growing share of the future global energy mix, PV (photovoltaic) energy generation has been expanding dramatically in recent years. IEC TC (Technical...

June 2011

Moving billions up and down every day

Moving people around and saving energy in commercial buildings

Elevators and escalators belong to the daily lives of billions of people. The equivalent of the world's population travels in elevators, escalators and moving walkways at least every...

May 2011

Improving energy efficiency in the home

Measurement of standby power

Standby power, the electricity used by appliances and equipment while they are in a standby mode or even when they are switched off in some cases, makes up a significant share of the...

May 2011

Let the sun shine

New Technical Committee on Solar Thermal Electric plants established

After more than two decades of testing, the generation of electricity from STE (Solar Thermal Electric) plants is moving from a research phase to industrial deployment. International...

April 2011

Plug them in, move them on!

IEC work on International Standards for EV charging

Electrification is essential for the long-term sustainability of individual transportation. Manufacturers are now offering a wide choice of EVs (electric vehicles). Some of these,...

April 2011

Go East, Young Man!

IEC TC 9 50th meeting in China highlights growing importance of Asia in TC work

In the electrotechnical domain, the importance industries or countries attach to a particular sector are good pointers to their actual participation in the work of IEC TCs (Technical...

April 2011

Updating Smart Grid methodology

Experts from industry, utilities and regional standards organizations from 13 countries attended an IEC international workshop

An international workshop was organized in Paris, France, on 8-9 March by IEC TC (Technical Committee) 8: Systems aspects for electrical energy supply. The purpose was to debate Smart...